North Wales child abuse scandal

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    North Wales child abuse scandal

    From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

    The North Wales child abuse scandal was the subject of a three-year, £13 million investigation into the physical and sexual abuse of children in care homes in the counties of Clwyd and Gwynedd, in North Wales, including the Bryn Estyn children’s home at Wrexham, between 1974 and 1990.[1] The report into the scandal, headed by retired High Court judge Sir Ronald Waterhouse QC, which was published in 2000, resulted in changes in policy in England and Wales into how authorities deal with children in care, and to the settling of 140 compensation claims on behalf of victims of child abuse.

    In November 2012, new allegations led to the Prime Minister, David Cameron, announcing that a senior independent figure, later named as Mrs Justice Julia Macur, would examine the conduct and remit of the Waterhouse Inquiry. In addition, the Home Secretary, Theresa May,
    announced a new police inquiry into how the original allegations were
    dealt with, as well as an investigation of any new allegations. The
    broadcasting of false allegations on Newsnight on 2 November led to the resignation of the Director-General of the BBC, George Entwistle, eight days later.

    The report of phase one of the police investigation, Operation Pallial,
    was published on 29 April 2013. It set out a total of 140 allegations
    of abuse at 18 children’s homes in North Wales between 1963 and 1992.
    The police stated in November 2013 that, in the previous year, over 200
    people had come forward to assist their enquiries.

    In November 2014, the owner of several children’s residential homes in the Wrexham area, John Allen, was convicted at Mold Crown Court
    on 33 counts of sexual abuse against 19 boys and one girl, aged between
    7 and 15, during the 1960s and 1970s. He was sentenced to life
    imprisonment.

    Contents

    Background

    In common with local government practice at the time, the two major councils in North WalesClwyd and Gwynedd
    – had a series of council-owned alongside privately owned and operated
    children’s homes. These provided residential care for children in line
    with the guidelines provided by both the Welsh Office and the British government. Homes and facilities in the region included:[2][not in citation given]

    • Clwyd
      • Council owned: Bryn Estyn; Cartrefle; Little Acton Assessment
        Centre; Bersham Hall; Chevet Hey; Park House; Upper Downing; South
        Meadow; Ysgol Talfryn
      • Privately owned: Bryn Alyn; Ystrad Hall School; Clwyd Hall School; Gatewen Hall; Tanllwyfan
    • Gwynedd
      • Council owned: Queens Park ; Ty’r Felin; Ty Newydd; Cartref Bontnewydd
      • Privately owned: Do’l Rhyd School and Ysgol Hengwrt
    • National Health Service facilities: Gwynfa Residential Unit (psychiatric hospital for children)

    Initial reports of abuse

    From
    1974 to 1990, a series of incidents of child abuse occurred within the
    North Wales children’s homes. Initial reports which did not appear in
    public included:[2][not in citation given]

    • 1979: Internal investigation of reports (against Gary Cooke and Graham Stephens) in 1979
    • September 1986: Residents of Ysgol Hengwrt, to the council. These
      reports eventually were brought to the Welsh Office’s attention.
    • 1988: The then Spastics Society against the care regime of Hengwrt Hall, to the council

    Alison Taylor: allegations, dismissal and publication

    In the mid-1980s Alison Taylor, a residential care
    worker and then manager of a children’s home in Gwynedd, began hearing
    stories from children coming to her home from across Clwyd and Gwynedd
    about a series of child sexual and abuse incidents in various care
    homes. On investigation, she found that several reports of these
    incidents had been made by both care and social workers, but that no
    procedural or disciplinary action had so far been taken as a result.[2][not in citation given]

    Creating a file around cases involving six children,[3] Taylor made a series of allegations against senior social care professionals working for the authority[2] which she raised with her superiors at the council, but again no action was taken. Taylor then reported her allegations to North Wales Police in 1986. The council suspended Taylor in January 1987,[3] alleging that there had been a “breakdown in communications” between Taylor and her colleagues.[2][not in citation given]

    On two subsequent occasions, the council offered Taylor a financial
    termination agreement, subject to her signing a confidentiality
    agreement. After refusing to sign the confidentiality agreement, Taylor
    was dismissed. With the help of her trade union, Taylor took the council
    to an industrial tribunal,
    which was quickly closed after the parties came to an out of court
    financial settlement. In September 1989, Taylor accepted the agreement,
    which did not include an associated confidentiality agreement.[2][not in citation given]

    At the later Inquiry, Sir Ronald Waterhouse publicly vindicated Taylor.[2] He stated that without Taylor’s campaigning, there would have been no inquiry.[2] Taylor was awarded a Pride of Britain award in 2000,[4] and since 1996 has worked as a novelist.[5]

    Initial public investigations

    After
    agreement had been reached with the council, Taylor went to the local,
    Welsh and UK national media with her allegations. In these reports,
    Taylor made further allegations about Bryn Estyn care home in Wrexham,
    which had been run until its closure in 1984 by Clwyd County Council.[2][not in citation given]

    In 1990, an investigation was undertaken by Detective Inspector Cronin of North Wales Police
    into allegations of sexual abuse at Cartrefle. Later reports found that
    Cronin undertook a thorough investigation to the best of his abilities,
    but that the investigation was restricted by a lack of co-operation by
    Children’s Services and Social Services. Cronin’s report, which found
    insufficient evidence to undertake a successful prosecution, was
    subsequently submitted to the council and became known as the Cartrefle Report.[2][not in citation given]

    Taylor continued her media campaign, discovering that more than ten
    reports of child abuse had been made to both councils before she had
    raised her concerns. Approached by other former and current residents
    and care workers with additional allegations, in 1991 Taylor compiled a
    dossier of allegations from over 100 young people,[2][not in citation given] from which she took evidence from 75 cases which she submitted to North Wales Police,[3]
    and copied to the council and Welsh Office. Only the police took any
    action, but were again not given co-operation by the council’s social
    services team.[2][3]

    Wider UK concerns about children in residential care led to the commissioning of 10 public enquiries between 1990 and 1996, including the Utting Report (1991) and the Warner Report
    (1992), which exposed large-scale institutional abuse of children and
    young people. As a result, prompted by the Welsh Office and with the
    support of local politicians, the newly appointed Director of Social Services
    in Clwyd found several instances of previous allegations uncovered by
    previous council investigations, which had either not been properly
    investigated or where reports calling for action had been ignored.[6][7]

    The wider matter of child sexual abuse was then referred jointly by
    both councils to North Wales Police who undertook an inquiry in 1993,
    taking some 2,600 witness statements,[8] and 300 cases were subsequently sent to the Crown Prosecution Service.[9]
    As a result, seven people were prosecuted and convicted. Six
    residential social workers were prosecuted for abuse, three of whom had
    worked at Bryn Estyn. The former deputy head of Bryn Estyn, Peter
    Howarth, was jailed for 10 years in 1994 for sexually abusing teenage
    boys;[10] he died in 1997.[11]

    Jillings Report

    There were then allegations that members of the police force had themselves colluded in covering up allegations. In March 1994 Clwyd County Council commissioned a further inquiry, the Jillings Report, undertaken by a panel headed by John Jillings,[12] a former director of social services with Derbyshire County Council.[13] The panel of Jillings, Professor Jane Tunstall and Gerrilyn Smith met with considerable opposition:[9]

    • The then newly appointed North Wales chief constable refused to meet
      them or help with access to the police major-incident database.[9]
      This resulted in the need to collect 70 duplicate and additional
      witness statements, obtained by local councillors and MPs, who included Ann Clwyd the MP for Cynon Valley since 1984.[14]
    • 130 boxes of material handed over by the council to the police were not made available to the panel.[9]
    • The council did not allow the inquiry to place a notice in the local
      press seeking information. “This was considered to be unacceptable to
      the insurers”, says the final report.[9]

    The Jillings Report stated that allegations involving famous names
    and paedophile rings were beyond its remit, and something best addressed
    at a potential later public inquiry.[15]
    It found a child care system in which physical and sexual violence were
    common, from beatings and bullying, to indecent assault and rape.[9] Children who complained of abuse were not believed, or were punished for making false allegations.[9]
    The report stated that the number of children who were abused is not
    clear, but estimates range up to 200; in the early 1990s, around 150 had
    sought compensation.[9] At least 12 former residents were found to have died from unnatural causes.[15] The report states that some staff linked to abuse may have been allowed to resign or retire early.[9] The report concludes that its panel members had considered quitting before publication, due to: “…the considerable constraints placed upon us.”[9]
    The final report’s appendices included limited copies of the key
    witness statements taken by North Wales Police during their earlier
    investigation.[8]

    The final report was not published because of concerns over libel, and legal advice and concerns from the council’s insurers, Municipal Mutual Insurance, which warned that the report would encourage court cases and compensation claims.[6][7]
    The report also states that Municipal Mutual suggested that the then
    chair of the council’s social services committee, Malcolm King, be
    sacked if he spoke out.[9] In November 2012, King commented:[9]

    It was assumed until November 2012 that all publicly held copies of
    the Jillings Report had been destroyed, and hence it could not be
    published. In light of the re-emergence of the scandal that month, one
    of the few legally held remaining copies was sent to the Children’s Commissioner for Wales, Keith Towler.[9]

    In November 2012, Anne Clwyd MP called for the legal archive copy of the report to be published, claiming that she was shown a copy in 1994: “I would say please get the Jillings report published because it shows… rape, bestiality, violent assaults and torture, and the effects on those young boys at that time cannot be under-estimated.” BBC Wales
    subsequently spoke to Jillings about Ms Clwyd’s claim of bestiality,
    but Jillings said his report did not unearth any such claims.[14] Jillings also commented that public figures were not among names given by victims, and that: “The
    people the investigation focussed on, because these were the people
    that the children spoke to us about, were staff members.”
    [16] Jillings commented to other media:[9]

    In November 2012 Flintshire County Council
    uncovered a copy of the Jillings Report in their archive. The six north
    Wales councils took legal advice about whether it could be made
    available under Freedom of Information legislation.[8][17]

    A redacted version of the report was finally published in July 2013, after a request by the BBC under the Freedom of Information Act.
    It said that: “Our investigations have led us to conclude that the
    abuse of children and young people in Clwyd residential units has been
    extensive, and has taken place over a substantial number of years…. It
    is clear that, in a significant number of cases, the lives of young
    people who have been through the care system in Clwyd have been severely
    disrupted and disturbed.” It severely criticised North Wales Police,
    and stated that “the most striking fact to emerge is that five men who
    shared in common their employment as residential care workers at Bryn
    Estyn were convicted of serious offences involving at least 24 young
    people.”[18]

    In June 2013, a redacted copy of the Jillings report was reportedly put up for auction on internet auction site eBay. After Wrexham Council threatened legal action, the item was removed from sale.[19]

    The Waterhouse Inquiry

    In 1996, the then Secretary of State for Wales, William Hague, ordered a Tribunal of Inquiry
    into allegations of hundreds of cases of child abuse in care homes in
    former county council areas of Clwyd and Gwynedd between 1974 and 1990.
    Sir Ronald Waterhouse QC, a retired High Court judge, was appointed to
    head the inquiry.[10]

    The inquiry began in January 1997. The tribunal sat for 203 days, and
    heard evidence directly from 250 witnesses, attracted 200 additional
    personal statements, and in total heard from more than 650 people.[20]
    Of the 260 witnesses that the inquiry, nearly half subsequently needed
    counselling for psychiatric help after giving evidence, paid for by the
    inquiry.[21]
    The inquiry finished taking evidence in May 1998, with Waterhouse
    expecting to submit his report to the Welsh Secretary within 6 to 8
    months.[22]
    However, the volume of evidence taken and the serious of allegations
    within, led to a 12-month delay in publication of the report to the
    Welsh Secretary until October 1999.[22] The final report ran to over 500,000 words, and contained 700 allegations of abuse involving 170 individuals.[22]
    More than 80 people, many of whom were care staff or teachers, were
    named as child abusers in statements to the inquiry. Costing more than
    £12M, it was stated to be: “the biggest investigation ever held in
    Britain into allegations of physical, sexual and emotional abuse of
    children who passed through the care system.”
    [10]

    The findings were published in February 2000, as Lost In Care – The Waterhouse Report.[23][24] The report concluded that there was: “Widespread
    sexual abuse of boys occurred in children’s residential establishments
    in Clwyd between 1974 and 1990. There were some incidents of sexual
    abuse of girl residents in these establishments but they were
    comparatively rare.”
    [2] As well as physical abuse and the unacceptable use of force,[11] there was “widespread sexual abuse, including buggery.”[2]
    The public version of the report named and criticised almost 200
    people, for either abusing children or failing to offer them sufficient
    protection. Although it identified 28 alleged perpetrators,[25] many names were redacted due to either pending prosecutions or lack of evidence.[2] The report stated:[11]

    The report found no evidence “to establish that there was a
    wide-ranging conspiracy involving prominent persons and others with the
    objective of sexual activity with children in care”
    ,[11] but did recognise the existence of a paedophile ring in the Wrexham and Chester area.[11][20][23]

    The Inquiry made 72 recommendations for changes,[2]
    constituting a massive overhaul of the way in which children in care
    are dealt with by local councils, social services and the police.[1][10]

    After the report was published, a window opened to allow victims to
    claim for compensation. On top of cases which had previously been
    handled and closed directly by both councils, additional cases were
    handled by lead solicitors Nelsons of Nottingham.[26] In total, 140 compensation claims were settled on behalf of victims by the time that the claim window closed in July 1999.[26] Further, a Children’s Commissioner for Wales was appointed as a result of one of the reports recommendations.[10]

    In a subsequent statement to the House of Commons, the Welsh Secretary Paul Murphy stated: “It is a tragedy that such treatment should have been meted out to children in care.”
    Murphy said there was no evidence of a high-level paedophile
    conspiracy, but that a paedophile ring around Cheshire and Wrexham had
    preyed on young people in care in the 1970s and 1980s.[24]

    The Secret of Bryn Estyn: The Making of a Modern Witch Hunt

    In 2005, the cultural historian Richard Webster published a book, The Secret of Bryn Estyn: The Making of a Modern Witch Hunt, which investigated the scandal. It was highly critical of the Waterhouse Inquiry, argued that abuse scandals could be phenomena created by public hysteria,[27] and reported a number of cases of apparently innocent care workers imprisoned as a consequence of false and unsubstantiated accusations
    elicited by police trawling operations. Webster also questioned whether
    some of those claiming abuse had been motivated by the prospect of
    financial reward.[23] Wrexham Council refused permission for a conference, arranged by Falsely Accused Carers and Teachers
    (F.A.C.T.), a support group, to be held at Bryn Estyn – now renamed the
    Erlas Centre – in 2005; Webster was to have been the main speaker.[28]

    Further allegations and investigations in 2012

    On 2 November 2012, following the revelations in the Jimmy Savile sexual abuse scandal, the BBC current affairs programme Newsnight
    aired an item about the scandal in which one of those who had suffered
    abuse in the 1980s, Steve Messham, made further allegations that there
    had been a much wider circle of abusers, including businessmen, members
    of the police and senior politicians, extending beyond the immediate
    area to London and beyond.[29] He called for a further investigation to be carried out.[20]
    The Children’s Commissioner for Wales, Keith Towler, supported the call
    for an inquiry, stating that the remit of the Waterhouse Inquiry had
    been too narrow.[30]

    On 5 November 2012 the Prime Minister, David Cameron,
    said that any new allegations of abuse would be investigated, and
    announced that a “senior independent figure”, later named as Mrs Justice
    Julia Macur,[31] would be appointed to look urgently into the terms of the original inquiry and whether it was properly constituted.[25] Tom Watson MP called for a wider ranging inquiry, and referred to allegations of abuse by a former Cabinet minister.[32] The Home Secretary, Theresa May,
    said that “… we should look to make sure that the work that was done
    in relation to the Waterhouse inquiry did cover everything that it
    needed to cover.” She announced on 6 November that Keith Bristow, the head of the National Crime Agency,
    would lead an investigation into how old claims of abuse were handled,
    and at fresh allegations. The investigation would involve the Serious Organised Crime Agency (SOCA) and the Child Exploitation and Online Protection Centre (CEOP), and would report by April 2013.[31] The investigation was subsequently known as Operation Pallial.[33]

    The Shadow Home Secretary, Yvette Cooper,
    called for a single, overarching public inquiry to be held in order to
    examine all the recent allegations of child abuse, including those
    relating to the Jimmy Savile scandal,[34] a call which was supported by former minister Tim Loughton and by the National Society for the Prevention of Cruelty to Children.[35] On 7 November, Ann Clwyd MP called for the 1994 Jillings report to be published.[36]

    On 6 November, Channel 4 News reported that Sir Peter Morrison, a former aide to Margaret Thatcher and MP for Chester, who died in 1995, had been ‘seen’ driving a boy away from the Bryn Estyn home.[37] The Conservative Party said that they were investigating the claims.[31] The Guardian
    reported that references made to the alleged involvement of another
    prominent Conservative politician may have been the result of confusion
    over the identities of two people sharing the same surname.[38] Lord McAlpine subsequently released a statement denying the allegations and describing them as ‘seriously defamatory’. A week after the Newsnight
    programme, on 9 November, the BBC apologised “unreservedly” for its
    broadcast, after Steve Messham apologised for the mistaken identity.[39] The Director-General of the BBC, George Entwistle, stated that he had been unaware of the content of the report before it was broadcast,[40] and after further criticism in the media resigned on 10 November.[41]

    A former ITV
    journalist, Paddy French, claimed in November 2012 that Waterhouse had
    been surprised that evidence from Des Frost, a former Deputy Director of
    Bryn Alyn, had not been reported to his inquiry despite Frost reporting
    abuse to the police.[42]

    Operation Pallial

    On
    17 December 2012 it was reported that Operation Pallial had received
    information from 105 possible victims of abuse in North Wales care
    homes, across 22 police force areas across the UK and Ireland.
    The investigation involved 27 police officers and staff, mainly from
    forces in north west England, supported by SOCA. Senior investigating
    officer Detective Superintendent Ian Mulcahey of Merseyside Police
    said that “Operation Pallial is investigating new allegations of
    historic child abuse, some from victims previously known about and some
    from victims who have come forward for the first time. All victims of
    abuse have a right to expect all allegations of abuse, no matter how
    much time has passed, to be investigated professionally and
    appropriately. We will do so. Equally importantly, if offenders are
    still alive they must be identified, investigated and brought to
    justice, with those who still have access to children being
    prioritised.” A report, to be submitted to the Chief Constable of North Wales Police and the Home Secretary, Theresa May, was being prepared for publication in April 2013.[33]

    The report of Phase One of Operation Pallial was published on 29
    April 2013. It set out a total of 140 allegations of abuse, involving
    girls and boys between the ages of 7 and 19, at 18 children’s homes in
    north Wales between 1963 and 1992. During the inquiry, 76 new
    complainants came forward, and the police reported allegations against
    84 individuals, of whom 16 had been named by more than one complainant.
    Some of those named were deceased. The Chief Constable of North Wales,
    Mark Polin, said: “Offenders quite rightly should have to look over
    their shoulders for the rest of their lives.”[43]

    Operation Pallial is prosecuted by Wales CPS. Leading Counsel is Eleanor Laws QC and Junior Counsel is Catherine Donnelly.

    A 71-year-old man, John Allen, appeared in court at Mold
    on 1 August 2013, charged with 32 serious sexual offences relating to
    allegations of historical child abuse, and was remanded in custody.[44]
    On 15 August the police announced that a fifth man, aged 62, had been
    arrested in connection with Operation Pallial, on suspicion of buggery and indecent assault on two boys in the 1980s.[45] A 52-year-old man from Mold was arrested in the St. Helens area on 10 October, on suspicion of child cruelty and indecent assault against four boys and one girl between 1981 and 1988.[46]

    In November 2013, the police stated that, since November 2012, 235
    people had contacted them with information about alleged abuse in care
    homes in north Wales. Detective Superintendent Mulcahey said that over
    100 names of alleged offenders had been put forward to Operation
    Pallial, and said that the police were “currently pursuing a large
    number of active lines of enquiry”.[47] A fifteenth arrest, of a 62-year-old man from Mold, was reported on 20 November.[48] Further arrests, bringing the total to 18, were reported on 12 December.[49] In July 2014, the BBC reported that 275 people had made allegations, and 49 possible suspects were being investigated.[50]

    In October 2014, John Allen appeared at Mold Crown Court accused of
    40 counts of sexual abuse against 19 boys and one girl, aged between 7
    and 15, during the 1960s and 1970s. At the time, Allen ran the Bryn Alyn
    Community which owned three children’s residential homes near Wrexham.
    It was said that Allen employed child care staff at the homes, but
    involved himself in the work especially at night, and created a
    “sexualised atmosphere alongside a culture of fear” at the homes, in
    particular at Bryn Alyn, Pentre Saeson and Bryn Terion. Allen denied all
    the charges,[51] but was found guilty on 33 of the charges.[52] On 1 December he was sentenced to life imprisonment and told he would serve at least 11 years in prison.[53]

    See also

    References

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  3. “Waterhouse Inquiry: recommendations and conclusions”. Daily Telegraph. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  4. Roger Dobson (10 October 1997). “At last, Alison Taylor tells how she exposed years of child abuse”. The Independent. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  5. “Alison taylor”. Pride of Britain. 2000. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
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  8. Brian Corby, The costs and benefits of the North Wales Tribunal of Inquiry, in Nicky Stanley, The Age of the Inquiry: Learning and blaming in Health and Social Care, 2004, pp.116-130
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  20. David Goodban (13 June 2013). “Document believed to be the Jillings Report leaked, eBay cancel the listing after concerns raised”. North Wales Daily Post. Retrieved 27 May 2014.
  21. BBC News “Call for new investigation into north Wales abuse scandal” Check |url= value (help). BBC Wales. 2 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  22. “Abuse victims’ evidence was ‘harrowing. BBC Wales. 9 February 2000. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  23. “Child abuse inquiry report due to reach Murphy”. BBC Wales. 12 October 1999. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  24. Mark Smith, Rethinking Residential Child Care: Positive Perspectives, 2009, pp.41-44
  25. “Victims welcome abuse revelations”. BBC Wales. 15 February 2000. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  26. “Wales child abuse: PM orders sex abuse inquiry probe”. BBC News. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  27. “Final deadline for abuse cases”. BBC Wales. 16 July 1999. Retrieved 15 November 2012.
  28. Woffinden, Bob (2011-07-31). “Richard Webster obituary”. The Guardian. London. Retrieved 2011-08-02.
  29. BBC News, Abuse group banned from meeting, 16 May 2005. Accessed 7 November 2012
  30. Sawyer, Patrick (3 November 2012). “Call for new investigation into north Wales abuse scandal”. The Daily Telegraph. Archived from the original on 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  31. “Children’s Commissioner for Wales calls for abuse probe”. BBC News. 4 November 2012. Retrieved 5 November 2012.
  32. “Crime Agency head to examine north Wales abuse claims. BBC News. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  33. “Tory child sex abuse ring claim: Cameron races to control scandal”. The Guardian. 5 November 2012. Retrieved 6 November 2012.
  34. “Wales child abuse: 105 cases being investigated”. BBC News. 17 December 2012. Retrieved 17 December 2012.
  35. “May announces details of child abuse investigations”. BBC Democracy Live. 6 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  36. Mulholland, Helene (8 November 2012). “David Cameron warns against ‘witch-hunt’ amid paedophilia allegations”. The Guardian. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  37. “Wales child abuse: Publish Jillings report – Ann Clwyd MP”. BBC News. 8 November 2012. Retrieved 8 November 2012.
  38. “Sir Peter Morrison ‘seen’ at abuse care home”. ITV News. 7 November 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  39. Leigh, David, Morris, Steven and van der Zee, Bibi (8 November 2012). Mistaken identity” led to top Tory abuse claim”. The Guardian. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  40. Mistaken identity” led to top Tory abuse claim”. BBC News. 9 November 2012. Retrieved 9 November 2012.
  41. Lisa O’Carroll, BBC chief unaware of Newsnight’s Tory peer child sex abuse story, The Guardian, 10 November 2012. Accessed 10 November 2012
  42. Paul Vale, George Entwistle Has Resigned As Director General Of The BBC, The Huffington Post, 10 November 2012. Accessed 10 November 2012
  43. “Child abuse inquiry ‘may not have heard key evidence'”, ITV.com, 15 November 2012. Accessed 30 November 2014
  44. BBC News, Wales child abuse: Operation Pallial inquiry finds evidence of 140 claims, 29 April 2013. Retrieved 29 April 2013
  45. BBC News, “Operation Pallial: Suspect John Allen remanded in custody”, 1 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013
  46. BBC News, “Fifth man arrested in north Wales care homes child abuse inquiry”, 15 August 2013. Retrieved 15 August 2013
  47. BBC News, “Operation Pallial: Man arrested over care home abuse”, 10 October 2013. Retrieved 10 October 2013
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  49. BBC News, “Operation Pallial: Man, 62, arrested over child abuse”, 20 November 2013. Retrieved 20 November 2013
  50. BBC News, “Operation Pallial: 18th arrest over care home abuse”, 12 December 2013. Retrieved 13 December 2013
  51. BBC News, “Operation Pallial: 275 people make abuse allegations”, 22 July 2014. Retrieved 22 July 2014
  52. BBC News, “John Allen trial: ‘Culture of fear’ at children’s homes”, 7 October 2014. Retrieved 7 October 2014
  53. BBC News, “John Allen trial: Wrexham home boss guilty of 33 abuse charges”, 27 November 2014. Retrieved 27 November 2014
  54. BBC News, “John Allen jailed for child abuse at Wrexham care homes”, 1 December 2014. Retrieved 1 December 2014

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